The RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (Takuya Hayashi, Team Leader) together with the Washington University in St. Louis (Prof. Van Essen) and the University of Lyon (Prof. Henry Kennedy) uncovered their perspective on cortical folding, parcellation, and connectivity in mice, marmosets, macaques, and humans. Cortical folding patterns vary dramatically across species, and individual variability in cortical folding increases with cortical surface area. Such issues are best analyzed using surface-based approaches that respect the topology of the cortical sheet. Accurate delineation of the entire mosaic of cortical areas requires a multimodal approach using information about function, architecture, connectivity, and topographic organization. Comparisons across the 4 aforementioned species reveal dramatic differences in the total number and arrangement of cortical areas, particularly between rodents and primates. Hemispheric variability and bilateral asymmetry are most pronounced in humans, which we evaluated using a high-quality multimodal parcellation of hundreds of individuals. Asymmetries include modest differences in areal size but not in areal identity. Analyses of cortical connectivity using anatomical tracers reveal highly distributed connectivity and a wide range of connection weights in monkeys and mice; indirect measures using functional MRI suggest a similar pattern in humans. Altogether, a multifaceted but integrated approach to exploring cortical organization in primate and nonprimate species provides complementary advantages and perspectives. Progress in achieving these objectives in primates and rodents will depend on further improvements in data quality and data analysis.
Perspective for understanding cortical folding, parcellation and connectivity in human, non-human primates and mice
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1902299116
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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America